Pour Point of Crude oil and Heavy Fuels. Handling and transporting crude oil represents a major challenge for producers. It can involve subsea lines, pipelines, storage tanks, railtank cars, tankers, all of which depend on the crude remaining liquid in the various environments and transportation conditions. Methods to ensure a liquid product and an uninterrupted crude flow include heating, blending with lighter stocks and additivation with PPDs (pour point depressant) The pour point of crude oil is the lowest temperature at which crude movement is observed. Anything that disrupts the formation and or properties of wax crystals such as PPD will affect the pour point. PPDs interact with paraffins in the crude and thus inhibit the formation of large wax crystals. As a result of this, the pour point is reduced. Although the principle is simple the field application is more complex as many factors may interfere in the performance of PPD
Drag Reducer (DRA)
Drag Reducer Additives are used to reduce frictional pressure during fluid flow in pipelines. Using DRAs allows increased flow using the same amount of energy or decreased pressure drop for the same flow rate of fluid in pipelines. DRAs, consist of long-chain hydrocarbon polymers that act as stabilisers in reducing turbulent formation. Frictional pressure drop, or drag, is a result of the resistance encountered by flowing fluid coming into contact with a solid surface, such as a pipe wall. DRAs can perform very well in most pipelines. In a turbulent flow regime, the fluid molecules move in a random manner, causing much of the energy applied to them to be wasted as eddy currents. This drag, in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costs you money. The FLO drag reducing additive minimizes flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces your energy costs. Flow can be increased by as much as 80% with existing assets. The use of DRAs can be used to increase in the volume of oil which can be pumped through an existing sysyem, reduce bottle necks in system near capacity. It can be used to reduce costs of pump stations and also be used at loading ports to reduce the loading times on vessels.
Mercaptans sulphur make the oil products smell. Depending on the content of the Mercaptans the smell can be anywhere between noticeable and foul. In many countries high Mercaptan products are unsellable and are not allowed to be transported. ER50 M is a very effective additive in reducing the mercaptans in both Crude Oil and in Products. The treat rate varies depending on the contamination and the final specification but given the correct treat method and time then all mercaptan issues can be solved. The advantage of ER50 M over other caustic additives is that there is no highly toxic waste to be disposed of.